Production and Marketing Situation
World durian situation
1. Commercial production of durian is concentrated in Thailand (900,000 to 950,000 tonnes) followed by Malaysia (400,000 tonnes) and Indonesia (200,000 tonnes). It is also grown in The Philippines and other ASEAN nations but at much smaller levels. The marketing period of durian is affected by short harvest seasons, only two to three months usually from May -August each year.
2. Most durian produced is consumed locally while only a small percentage is exported. Thailand is the largest exporter of fresh and frozen durian with 1997 exports of 78,500 tonnes or 10% of its total production. Malaysia exports a relatively small amount to Singapore and Brunei. The production in Indonesia , the Philippines and Brunei is not sufficient to meet domestic demand , thus imports from Malaysia and Thailand are necessary.
3. The major export market is Asia. Specifically China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Brunei. China, Taiwan and Hong Kong prefer the edible or soft ripe durians with a mild aroma, thus imports are mostly from Thailand. Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and the Philippines love the overripe fruit.
4. The worldwide exporters and importers
Thailand cultivated the most durian, up to 338,000 acres, producing about 900,000 to 950,000 tonnes in 1996. The harvesting and marketing periods are from April to October with the peak in May. Approximately 85% of the harvest is domestically consumed fresh, with 10% exports and the remaining 5% processed.
Malaysia has a cultivated area of 160,000 acres, producing about 400,000 tonnes which are mainly produced in Perak and Johor states. The harvesting time is between June- September annually. Most of the strains are local and wild varieties; small with a thick husk and large seeds. Although most production is consumed domestically, there are some exports to neighboring countries such as Singapore and Brunei.
Because of the different time of harvesting seasons among the durian growing countries, Malaysia still needs to import durian from Thailand to supply domestic demand especially in April-May before the harvesting season of Malaysian durian.
Hong Kong. Durian is a favorite among Hong Kong Residents no less than longan because they consider it as a medicine to give heat to the body. Hong Kong prefers edible or soft ripe durian thus most of consumption is supplied from Thailand. The annual amount of domestic demand is estimated around 5,000 - 10,000 tonnes, of which 90% is supplied by imports from Thailand and the remainder from Malaysia.
Taiwan. Most domestic demand is met by imports from Thailand. Taiwan is the largest destination of half of fresh durian exported from Thailand or 36,000 tonnes in 1997. The consumer prefers good quality durian, Monthong is believed to be the best eating quality , so most imports are Monthong followed by Chanee.
Singapore. Singaporeans like to consume the overripe fruit like Malaysians. Normally Singapore imports 25,000 tonnes of fresh durian mostly from Malaysia and Thailand. Malaysia accounts for 80% of the total imports. Thailand supplies 20% of total imports during April - May before the harvesting season of Malaysian durian.
China. China is becoming an important import market with high potential due to the large population with an increasing income. Thailand supplies most of the domestic demand. The import channel from Thailand is made via Hong Kong with an estimate that 85% of its export to Hong Kong was re - exported to China or the equivalent of 20,000-25,000 tonnes in 1997. However, China probably imports more durian from Thailand than the data shows. No official data is available.
Thai durian situation
1. Area of production. In 1996, the planting area totaled 338,000 acres comprising 65 % bearing and 35% prebearing trees. Up to 75% is grown in the eastern region. The commercial cultivation areas are now concentrated in the provinces of Chanthaburi (50%), Rayong (15%), Trat (5%) and Prachin Buri (1%) . The South accounts for 25% of the total area mostly spread in the provinces of Chumphon, Ranong, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat and Surat Thani. A relatively small amount is cultivated in the province of Uttaradit in the North and in Nonthaburi province in the central region.
2. Variety. The major commercial varieties are Chanee, Monthong, Kradumthong and Kanyao. Chanee and Monthong account for 45% and 40 % of the total production respectively while Kanyao and Kradumthong are cultivated in a smaller number.
3. Marketing season. Durian is a seasonal fruit produced once a year. The marketing periods differ according to the growing region. The eastern region's market starts in April and continues until June with the peak in May. Fruit from the southern region is marketed from July-September.
4. Production. Thailand' s capacity to produce durian is approximately 50-60 % of the global supply which totaled 1,400,000-1,500,000 tonnes each year. From 1993 to 1996, domestic production of Thai durian steadily increased from 746,600 tonnes to 946,000 tonnes with an average annual growth of approximately 10%. This significant increase was attributed to a 7.82% increase in the area of fruit bearing trees. A look on prebearing area of about 120,000 acres in 1996 indicates that durian output will continue to increase into the future.
1. Marketing structure. Most durians are domestically consumed fresh, accounting for 85% of the overall production, while export of fresh and frozen durians for 10% and the processed forms for 5%
2. Export. There are 3 types of exports : fresh, frozen and paste types. Although the portion of export is low compared to the production, the total quantity in the last 5 years (1993-1997) increased considerably due to increased harvest and an expanded market.
|1993||1994||1995||1996||1997|| Export Market |
|Fresh (tonnes) ||18,641||26,915||48,716||65,694||72,987|| China, Taiwan, Hong Kong |
| Frozen (tonnes)||2,559||3,330||3,547||5,635||5,493|| USA|
| Paste (tonnes)||17||18||6||5||34|| Singapore, Hong Kong|
Export of fresh durian. During 1993 - 1997, the export quantity and value increased substantially at a growth rate of 43% and 42% respectively. In 1997, the exports reached 72,987 tonnes , of which 85% came from the East and 15% came from the South. The export markets are Taiwan, accounting for 50% of country's exports , followed by China , Hong Kong , Malaysia , Indonesia and Singapore. A smaller number of exports is also sent to distant markets such as Canada and the USA .
Export of frozen durian. From 1993-1997 frozen durian export quantity increased considerably from 2,559 tonnes in 1993 to 5,493 tonnes in 1997. The main market is the USA (60%).
Processed durian. Although processed durian accounts for only 5% of the total market, it substantially increases the value of durian especially the poor quality flesh. The overripe and marshy flesh which is not usually consumed fresh and sold for a low price is used to make paste or toffee. For crisp durian, the mature green fruit is taken out the pulp for frying. Good quality Monthong and Chanee are processed into frozen durian for the export market.
Measures for import and export
1. Export. The Ministry of Commerce has set up regulations for controlling quality by requiring the exporter to label with the name of the exporter, variety of durian and optimum date for consumption on the package or on the stem of the fruit.
2 Import. No control